The Ottoman empire’s secular history undermines sharia claims | Homosexuality is NOT a crime under Islamic state !!!

The Ottoman empire’s secular history undermines sharia claims | Tehmina Kazi | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk

Hardline Muslim groups often portray the Ottoman empire as a magic template for a global caliphate. This is then used as a springboard for grandiose arguments that paint a caliphate as viable, and deem it as the only credible model of governance for the future. These arguments are based on a belief that the empire adhered to a single interpretation of sharia (Islamic law) for over 600 years, and – crucially – that its success was contingent on this.

But a paper by Ishtiaq Hussain, published by Faith Matters on Saturday displays a very different picture. Ottoman sultans, or caliphs, in the 18th and 19th centuries launched secular schools and promoted the education of women. The period of reformation known as the Tanzimat saw customary and religious laws being replaced in favour of secular European ones. More surprisingly, homosexuality was decriminalised in 1858 (long before many western states took their cue, and over a century before the American Psychiatric Association declassified it as a mental illness in 1973). Contrary to the claims of hardline groups, religious authorities approved many of these measures.

In terms of broader social change, the Ottomans made strong attempts to integrate non-Muslim communities. On the cultural front, it is well known that a minority of people claim that Islam frowns upon artistic expression. However, the last sultan/caliph, Abdulmecid Efendi (1922-1924) has numerous paintings on display in Istanbul’s new museum of modern art; many others were also keen musicians and played a variety of musical instruments. It is therefore clear that the sultan/caliphs enunciated a progressive vision for a secular Muslim society, many years before al-Qaida and similar groups came into existence.

For those who dismiss President Ataturk‘s vision as an anomaly, this reconsideration of their history must come as a nasty shock.

The purpose of Hussain’s paper is to encourage people who carry the baton for totalitarian ideologies – including those who are inspired by Anwar al-Awlaki – to think again. The recent deaths of al-Awlaki and his demagogue Osama bin Laden only mean that part of the battle is won.

The other part of the battle is ideological, and this paper boldly leads the way by challenging a key component of that ideology. It does a stellar job in exposing the fallacies that lie within extremist narratives. For example, why do some groups refer to the Ottoman empire as a “caliphate” when it did not synchronise state law with religious law?

When hardline groups present Islam as a rigid political ideology, they end up doing a great disservice to Islam and Muslim communities. One of Islam’s strengths is its relevance to all places and all times, which means that it can take on numerous expressions according to local circumstances. Scholars like Emory University professor Abdullahi An-Na’im recognise that the content of the sharia is bound to its historical context.

An-Naim maintains that concepts such as human rights and citizenship are more consistent with Islamic principles than a state which purports to be Islamic and enforces sharia. In his book, Islam and the Secular State, he goes as far as to suggest that the very idea of an Islamic state is based on European ideas of state and law, and not the Islamic tradition.

It is now more important than ever for greater numbers of individuals to stand up against fascism and extremism – no matter where it comes from. This is why groups like British Muslims for Secular Democracy (BMSD) – the organisation that I work for – have protested against both al-Muhajiroun (in their various guises) and Stop the Islamification of Europe.

Of course, we support the findings of this paper, and hope this is disseminated as widely as possible. I also hope this paper will get far-right groups to reconsider the history of Muslims in Europe, and make them realise the positive contribution Islam has made in countries like Turkey and Spain.

The importance of grassroots work to this end – in schools, universities, refugee centres and on social networking sites – cannot be underestimated. Finally, I would like to see the government develop a sound understanding of the issues in this paper, and their relevance to the British Muslim situation. This would be a fitting token of support for organisations like BMSD and Faith Matters.

Advertisements
Standard

6 thoughts on “The Ottoman empire’s secular history undermines sharia claims | Homosexuality is NOT a crime under Islamic state !!!

  1. makra says:

    <html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml&quot; xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"><head><meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=utf-8"><meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 12 (filtered medium)"><!–[if !mso]><style>v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} </style><![endif]–><style><!– /* Font Definitions */ @font-face
    {font-family:Helvetica;
    panose-1:2 11 6 4 2 2 2 2 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Helvetica;
    panose-1:2 11 6 4 2 2 2 2 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Calibri;
    panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Tahoma;
    panose-1:2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Segoe UI";
    panose-1:2 11 5 2 4 2 4 2 2 3;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Lucida Sans Unicode";
    panose-1:2 11 6 2 3 5 4 2 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Verdana;
    panose-1:2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Lucida Console";
    panose-1:2 11 6 9 4 5 4 2 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Traditional Arabic";
    panose-1:2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0;} @font-face
    {font-family:Georgia;
    panose-1:2 4 5 2 5 4 5 2 3 3;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal
    {margin:0in;
    margin-bottom:.0001pt;
    line-height:normal;
    font-size:12.0pt;
    font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} h1
    {mso-style-priority:9;
    mso-style-link:"Heading 1 Char";
    margin-top:6.0pt;
    margin-right:0in;
    margin-bottom:12.0pt;
    margin-left:0in;
    line-height:normal;
    font-size:24.0pt;
    font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
    font-weight:bold;} h2
    {mso-style-priority:9;
    mso-style-link:"Heading 2 Char";
    margin-top:0in;
    margin-right:0in;
    margin-bottom:3.0pt;
    margin-left:0in;
    line-height:normal;
    font-size:18.0pt;
    font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
    font-weight:bold;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    color:#EB7400;
    text-decoration:none none;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    color:#EB7400;
    text-decoration:none none;} p
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    margin-top:0in;
    margin-right:0in;
    margin-bottom:6.0pt;
    margin-left:0in;
    line-height:15.6pt;
    font-size:12.0pt;
    font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} p.MsoAcetate, li.MsoAcetate, div.MsoAcetate
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    mso-style-link:"Balloon Text Char";
    margin:0in;
    margin-bottom:.0001pt;
    line-height:normal;
    font-size:8.0pt;
    font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";} span.Heading1Char
    {mso-style-name:"Heading 1 Char";
    mso-style-priority:9;
    mso-style-link:"Heading 1";
    font-family:"Cambria","serif";
    color:#365F91;
    font-weight:bold;} span.Heading2Char
    {mso-style-name:"Heading 2 Char";
    mso-style-priority:9;
    mso-style-link:"Heading 2";
    font-family:"Cambria","serif";
    color:#4F81BD;
    font-weight:bold;} span.EmailStyle20
    {mso-style-type:personal-reply;
    font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
    color:#1F497D;} span.BalloonTextChar
    {mso-style-name:"Balloon Text Char";
    mso-style-priority:99;
    mso-style-link:"Balloon Text";
    font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";} span.st1
    {mso-style-name:st1;} .MsoChpDefault
    {mso-style-type:export-only;
    font-size:10.0pt;} @page WordSection1
    {size:8.5in 11.0in;
    margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in;} div.WordSection1
    {page:WordSection1;} –></style><!–[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="2050" /> </xml><![endif]–><!–[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1" /> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]–></head><body lang=EN-US link="#EB7400" vlink="#EB7400"><div class=WordSection1><p class=MsoNormal dir=RTL style=’text-align:right;direction:rtl;unicode-bidi:embed’><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif"’>هل عرفنا السبب الحقيقي لماذا انهارت الخلافة العثمانية بعد أن بلغ سلطانها المشرقين والمغربين لقرون عديدة؟<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal dir=RTL style=’text-align:right;direction:rtl;unicode-bidi:embed’><span class=st1><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif"’>لقد بدأ الانحدار منذ أن جلس السلطان عبد المجيد على العرش. فهو الذي تولى كبر مسيرة التغريب في الدولة العثمانية، وجعل مشيخة الإسلام مجرد هيئة شورية، وأصدر فرمان التنظيمات الذي أعاد تعريف قانون البلاد على طريقة علمانية تشبه دول أوروبا لأول مرة في تاريخ الدولة العثمانية التي كانت تعتمد على الشريعة كمصدر رئيسي لسن القوانين. </span></span><span class=st1><span lang=AR-SA><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class=MsoNormal dir=RTL style=’text-align:right;direction:rtl;unicode-bidi:embed’><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif"’>بل إنه وفي الوقت الذي كان الجيش العثماني يمنى بانهزامات عسكرية (على يد البراهيم باشا قائد الجيوش المصرية)، تجد هذا السلطان العابث ينفق خزينة الدولة على قصر (دولمه بهجت) ضاربا بعرض الحائط سيرة أجداده كالسلطان محمد الفاتح والذين كان همهم إقامة الدين ونشر الدعوة وتحكيم الشريعة.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal dir=RTL style=’text-align:right;direction:rtl;unicode-bidi:embed’><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif"’>فكيف تتخذ سيرته بعد ذلك دلالة على سيرة العثمانيين كلهم؟! وهل يبوء الصالح بوزر الطالح؟<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal dir=RTL style=’text-align:right;direction:rtl;unicode-bidi:embed’><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif"’>إن من أباح ما أجمع أهل الحق على تحريمه لا يكون حاكما بالشريعة، ومن لم يحكم بالشريعة فلا فلاح له، ولا يصلح قدوة أو إماما أو منهجا. وفي هذا أبلغ الموعظة والعبرة لأولي الألباب.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal dir=RTL style=’text-align:right;direction:rtl;unicode-bidi:embed’><span class=st1><b><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#222222′>(إنَّمَا كَانَ قَوْلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ </span></b></span><span class=st1><b><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:black’>إِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ</span></b></span><span class=st1><b><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#222222′> أَنْ يَقُولُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا <u>وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ.)<o:p></o:p></u></span></b></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’></span></p><div><table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style=’border-collapse:collapse’><tr style=’height:62.1pt’><td width=107 valign=top style=’width:63.9pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:62.1pt’><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’><img width=77 height=85 id="Picture_x0020_18" src="cid:image001.png@01CD94FB.A74520C0" alt=Gold><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td width=375 style=’width:225.0pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:62.1pt’><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:13.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′>Mohamad Akra</span><span style=’font-size:13.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>CEO</span><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#5F5F5F’><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’><a href="http://www.ebanan.com/"><u><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′>Banan Information Technologies</span></u></a></span><u><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′><o:p></o:p></span></u></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:1.0pt;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";color:#0070C0′></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:7.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Console";color:#A6A6A6′>Phone : +249 (1) 8533-4776<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:7.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Console";color:#A6A6A6′>Fax :   +249 (1) 8533-8655</span><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr></table><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’></span></p></div><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’></span></p><div><div style=’border:none;border-top:solid #B5C4DF 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 0in 0in 0in’><p class=MsoNormal><b><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"’>From:</span></b><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"’> Dirassat Beirut [mailto:post@dirassat.posterous.com] <br><b>Sent:</b> Monday, September 17, 2012 2:51 PM<br><b>To:</b> mohamad.akra@ebanan.com<br><b>Subject:</b> [dirassat] The Ottoman empire’s secular history undermines sharia claims | Homosexuality is NOT a crime under Islamic state !!!<o:p></o:p></span></p></div></div><p class=MsoNormal></p><div align=center><table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=650 style=’width:390.0pt’><tr style=’height:12.0pt’><td colspan=3 style=’background:#EAEAEA;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:12.0pt’></td></tr><tr><td width=20 style=’width:12.0pt;background:#EAEAEA;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in’></td><td style=’padding:0in 0in 0in 0in’><div align=center><table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=610 style=’width:366.0pt’><tr style=’height:.5in’ id=header><td width=610 style=’width:366.0pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:.5in’><div id="logo_container"><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:14.5pt;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";color:#333333′><img border=0 width=610 id=logo src="http://posterous.com/images/emails/design/logo.jpg&quot; alt="Posterous Spaces"><o:p></o:p></span></p></div></td></tr><tr><td style=’padding:0in 0in 0in 0in’><table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=610 style=’width:366.0pt;background:white’><tr style=’height:12.0pt’><td style=’padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:12.0pt’></td><td style=’border:none;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in’ width=594 colspan=2><p class=’MsoNormal’>&nbsp;</p></td></tr><tr><td width=16 style=’width:9.6pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in’></td><td width=578 style=’width:346.8pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in’><table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=578 style=’width:346.8pt’ id="first_section"><tr><td style=’padding:0in 0in 0in 0in’><p><span style=’font-size:7.0pt;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";color:#333333′></span></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></table></td></tr></table></div></td></tr></table></div></div></body></html>

  2. Walid Nouh says:

    Ottoman Tanzimat is Islamic …Learn how to accept and respect the entirety of our Islamic  historical heritage is key for a healthy unbiased mind. Creating holes in time by demoralizing and demonizing some eras of ottoman history can only be explained as  being the result of extreme ideological Islamic premises non-compatible with the natural flow of Muslim societies.Trying to attribute or explain down-cycles (not failures) in the history of ottoman state on the basis of a some political islamic dystopia, supposedly derived from shariah law, is unfair to the achievements of the ottoman political system. Among the great achievements attributed to Ottomans, we have to cite the Tanzimat or ottoman reforms introduced  in 1839. The time required a move from pure monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. It is important to stress that Tanzimat was based on Shariah by capturing the main narratives and goals of Shariah. Unfortunately, with its late introduction into the ottoman mainstream politics, Tanzimat was hijacked by ultra Turkish national movement in an effort to weaken the sultanate. Regardless of its degree of success, Tanzimat remains an Islamic concept that took shape under an Islamic system and state resulting in Islamic laws. When Ottoman Khilafah was abolished in 1924, Ahmed Shawki eulogized it saying :ضجت عليك مآذن ومنابر

    وبكت عليك ممالك ونواحالهند والهة ومصر حزينة

    تبكي عليك بمدمع سحَّاحوالشام تسأل والعراق وفارس

    أمحا من الأرض الخلافة ماح؟!Concerning the linking of sharia or sacred law to the prosperity of a nation, we have to remember that justice and justice alone is the cause of rise of a nation. Ibn Taymiyyah has captured it nicely:إنَّ اللَّهَ يُقِيمُ الدَّوْلَةَ الْعَادِلَةَ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ كَافِرَةً ؛ وَلَا يُقِيمُ الظَّالِمَةَ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ مُسْلِمَةًGod will support the just state even if it is non-Muslim state, and He will not support the unjust state even if it is Muslim. Both Tanzimat and the current Turkish system are example of legitimate Islamic systems. They are not temporary fringes or glitches or bridges to that imaginary political utopia. Keep you paradise for the hereafter.  Erdoğan and Erbakan succeeded because they consistently and justly implemented the totally secular system of Turkey. If success is our criteria, Turkey’s current political system, far more secularized than Tanzimat, carried and implemented by practicing Muslims  is surely an example of an Islamic regime. Why? Because it was justly carried and implemented. Since the decriminalization of homosexuality during Tanzimat, we will surely not find Turkey infested with homosexuals nowadays. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for some middle eastern Arab countries raising the banner of shariah. 

  3. makra says:

    <html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml&quot; xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"><head><meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=utf-8"><meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 12 (filtered medium)"><!–[if !mso]><style>v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} </style><![endif]–><style><!– /* Font Definitions */ @font-face
    {font-family:"Cambria Math";
    panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Calibri;
    panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Tahoma;
    panose-1:2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Verdana;
    panose-1:2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Lucida Console";
    panose-1:2 11 6 9 4 5 4 2 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Segoe UI";
    panose-1:2 11 5 2 4 2 4 2 2 3;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Lucida Sans Unicode";
    panose-1:2 11 6 2 3 5 4 2 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Traditional Arabic";
    panose-1:2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal
    {margin:0in;
    margin-bottom:.0001pt;
    font-size:12.0pt;
    font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    color:blue;
    text-decoration:underline;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    color:purple;
    text-decoration:underline;} p
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
    margin-right:0in;
    mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
    margin-left:0in;
    font-size:12.0pt;
    font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} p.MsoAcetate, li.MsoAcetate, div.MsoAcetate
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    mso-style-link:"Balloon Text Char";
    margin:0in;
    margin-bottom:.0001pt;
    font-size:8.0pt;
    font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";} span.EmailStyle18
    {mso-style-type:personal-reply;
    font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
    color:#1F497D;} span.BalloonTextChar
    {mso-style-name:"Balloon Text Char";
    mso-style-priority:99;
    mso-style-link:"Balloon Text";
    font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";} .MsoChpDefault
    {mso-style-type:export-only;} @page WordSection1
    {size:8.5in 11.0in;
    margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in;} div.WordSection1
    {page:WordSection1;} –></style><!–[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="2050" /> </xml><![endif]–><!–[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1" /> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]–></head><body lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple><div class=WordSection1><p class=MsoNormal dir=RTL style=’text-align:right;direction:rtl;unicode-bidi:embed’><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif"’>كتاب الدولة العثمانية: <a href="http://forum.sh3bwah.maktoob.com/t163632.html">عوامل النهوض وأسباب السقوط</a>: <span style=’color:#3E3E3E’>يوضح للقارئ كيف وضعت حركة التنظيمات الدولة العثمانية رسمياً على طريق نهايتها</span></span><span dir=LTR></span><span lang=AR-SA dir=LTR style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’><span dir=LTR></span> </span><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’>كدولة اسلامية، فعلمنت القوانين ووضعت مؤسسات تعمل بقوانين وضعية، وابتعدت الدولة</span><span dir=LTR></span><span lang=AR-SA dir=LTR style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’><span dir=LTR></span> </span><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’>عن التشريع الاسلامي في مجالات التجارة والسياسة والاقتصاد، وبذلك سحب من الدولة</span><span dir=LTR></span><span lang=AR-SA dir=LTR style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’><span dir=LTR></span> </span><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’>العثمانية شرعيتها من أنظار المسلمين</span><span dir=LTR></span><span dir=LTR style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’><span dir=LTR></span>.</span><span dir=RTL></span><span style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’><span dir=RTL></span> <span lang=AR-SA>ويبين للقارئ الكريم كيف هيمن رجال</span></span><span dir=LTR></span><span lang=AR-SA dir=LTR style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’><span dir=LTR></span> </span><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’>التغريب على الدولة العثمانية في زمن السلطان عبدالعزيز وعندما تعرض لكثير من</span><span dir=LTR></span><span lang=AR-SA dir=LTR style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’><span dir=LTR></span> </span><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’>مخططاتهم عزلوه ثم قتلوه</span><span dir=LTR></span><span dir=LTR style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’><span dir=LTR></span>.</span><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal dir=RTL style=’text-align:right;direction:rtl;unicode-bidi:embed’><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif";color:#3E3E3E’>يمكن تنزيله من الرابط أعلاه.</span><span lang=AR-SA style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Traditional Arabic","serif"’><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’></span></p><table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style=’border-collapse:collapse’><tr style=’height:62.1pt’><td width=107 valign=top style=’width:63.9pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:62.1pt’><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’><img border=0 width=77 height=85 id="Picture_x0020_18" src="cid:image001.png@01CD9685.51545330" alt=Gold><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td width=375 style=’width:225.0pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:62.1pt’><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:13.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′>Mohamad Akra</span><span style=’font-size:13.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>CEO</span><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#5F5F5F’><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’><a href="http://www.ebanan.com/"><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′>Banan Information Technologies</span></a></span><u><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′><o:p></o:p></span></u></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:1.0pt;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";color:#0070C0′></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:7.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Console";color:#A6A6A6′>Phone : +249 (1) 8533-4776<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:7.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Console";color:#A6A6A6′>Fax :   +249 (1) 8533-8655</span><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr></table><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’></span></p><div style=’border:none;border-top:solid #B5C4DF 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 0in 0in 0in’><p class=MsoNormal><b><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"’>From:</span></b><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"’> Posterous [mailto:</span></p></div></div></body></html>

  4. Walid Nouh says:

    <html><head></head><body bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><div><div style="text-align: left;direction: ltr; "><span class="Apple-style-span" style="-webkit-tap-highlight-color: rgba(26, 26, 26, 0.292969); -webkit-composition-fill-color: rgba(175, 192, 227, 0.230469); -webkit-composition-frame-color: rgba(77, 128, 180, 0.230469);"><br></span></div></div><div>Dr Salabi is a salafi writer who is writing a book on ottoman Turkish history without proper knowledge of ottoman language and without access to Turkish archive. His book cannot be used as reference on the matter of analyzing the rise and fall of ottoman state.</div><div><br></div><div>Like many of pseudo Muslim historians (many these days), Dr Salabi is only projecting his ideological biases.&nbsp;</div><div><br></div><div>Regards,<div>Walid.</div></div><div><br></div></body></html>

  5. makra says:

    <html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml&quot; xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"><head><meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=utf-8"><meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 12 (filtered medium)"><!–[if !mso]><style>v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} </style><![endif]–><style><!– /* Font Definitions */ @font-face
    {font-family:"Cambria Math";
    panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Calibri;
    panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Tahoma;
    panose-1:2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:Verdana;
    panose-1:2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Lucida Console";
    panose-1:2 11 6 9 4 5 4 2 2 4;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Segoe UI";
    panose-1:2 11 5 2 4 2 4 2 2 3;} @font-face
    {font-family:"Lucida Sans Unicode";
    panose-1:2 11 6 2 3 5 4 2 2 4;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal
    {margin:0in;
    margin-bottom:.0001pt;
    font-size:12.0pt;
    font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    color:blue;
    text-decoration:underline;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    color:purple;
    text-decoration:underline;} p
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
    margin-right:0in;
    mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
    margin-left:0in;
    font-size:12.0pt;
    font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} p.MsoAcetate, li.MsoAcetate, div.MsoAcetate
    {mso-style-priority:99;
    mso-style-link:"Balloon Text Char";
    margin:0in;
    margin-bottom:.0001pt;
    font-size:8.0pt;
    font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";} span.EmailStyle18
    {mso-style-type:personal-reply;
    font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
    color:#1F497D;} span.BalloonTextChar
    {mso-style-name:"Balloon Text Char";
    mso-style-priority:99;
    mso-style-link:"Balloon Text";
    font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";} .MsoChpDefault
    {mso-style-type:export-only;} @page WordSection1
    {size:8.5in 11.0in;
    margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in;} div.WordSection1
    {page:WordSection1;} –></style><!–[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="2050" /> </xml><![endif]–><!–[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1" /> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]–></head><body lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple><div class=WordSection1><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>I especially liked the fact that you wrote this comment <b><u>20 minutes</u></b> after you posted an article from </span><b><u><span style=’font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:red’>Noah Feldman</span></u></b><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>, who is – to use the same criteria of yours – :<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>- A Sufi writer, well versed in several Sufi orders…<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>- An expert in the ottoman language with full access to the Turkish archive<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>- His article can be confidently used as a reference on the matter of analyzing the rise and fall of Ottoman state.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>- Unlike all the Jewish writers nowadays, Mr. Noah Feldman is doing a neutral analysis, away from any of his ideological biases!<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>Regards,<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’></span></p><table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style=’border-collapse:collapse’><tr style=’height:62.1pt’><td width=107 valign=top style=’width:63.9pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:62.1pt’><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’><img width=77 height=85 id="Picture_x0020_18" src="cid:image001.png@01CD96BA.C58FC6F0" alt=Gold><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td width=375 style=’width:225.0pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:62.1pt’><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:13.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′>Mohamad Akra</span><span style=’font-size:13.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’>CEO</span><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#5F5F5F’><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’><a href="http://www.ebanan.com/"><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′>Banan Information Technologies</span></a></span><u><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:#C2AB00′><o:p></o:p></span></u></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:1.0pt;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";color:#0070C0′></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:7.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Console";color:#A6A6A6′>Phone : +249 (1) 8533-4776<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:7.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Console";color:#A6A6A6′>Fax :   +249 (1) 8533-8655</span><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr></table><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style=’font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D’></span></p><div style=’border:none;border-top:solid #B5C4DF 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 0in 0in 0in’><p class=MsoNormal><b><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"’>From:</span></b><span style=’font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"’> Posterous [mailto:</span></p></div></div></body></html>

  6. Walid Nouh says:

    <html><head></head><body bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><div><div style="text-align: left;direction: ltr; ">It is ok to discredit Feldman’s article if someone doesn’t agree with its content. But, let me point that Feldman’s article primary scope is constitutional law and not historical criticism and censorship. Dr Feldman is not trying to discredit shariah based legal system. He is trying to argue the benefits of shariah derived constitutional law over shariah "Fakih" based system.</div><div style="text-align: left;direction: ltr; "><br></div><div style="text-align: left;direction: ltr; ">The tone of Dr Salabi book is different and quite biased. All his references are in Arabic. I have to assume he lacks the knowledge English or any other language except Arabic. His description of Wahhabi insurgence misses the oppression and the atrocities of Wahhabi confirmed by contemporary Arab scholars of the era and the report of masjid nabawi imam Abderahman ibn Ilyas (posted earlier based on ottoman archives). Obviously he is ignorant of critical historical events due to an ideological bias and the lack of language. In addition, His judgment of the ottoman rulers was quite shallow and at times rude. Mohammed Ali was a Mason. &nbsp;Sheikh Rifa3a Tahtawi, a highly moral and &nbsp;knowledgable scholar from Alzhar, had a crush on French women ball dancing! Replacing the concept of dhimmi with citizenship was in violation of shariah and against God’s will (all current Muslim parties including the Salafi are &nbsp;supporting the concept of citizenship and equal treatment between Muslims and non Muslims). I believe he missed reading the decriminalization of homosexuality under tanzimat being too stunned by the concept of citizenship. It doesn’t hurt sending him a note for his next print.&nbsp;</div><div style="text-align: left;direction: ltr; "><span class="Apple-style-span" style="-webkit-tap-highlight-color: rgba(26, 26, 26, 0.296875); -webkit-composition-fill-color: rgba(175, 192, 227, 0.230469); -webkit-composition-frame-color: rgba(77, 128, 180, 0.230469); "><br></span></div><div style="text-align: left;direction: ltr; "><span class="Apple-style-span" style="-webkit-tap-highlight-color: rgba(26, 26, 26, 0.296875); -webkit-composition-fill-color: rgba(175, 192, 227, 0.230469); -webkit-composition-frame-color: rgba(77, 128, 180, 0.230469); ">etc … etc …</span><br></div><div style="text-align: left;direction: ltr; "><span class="Apple-style-span" style="-webkit-tap-highlight-color: rgba(26, 26, 26, 0.296875); -webkit-composition-fill-color: rgba(175, 192, 227, 0.230469); -webkit-composition-frame-color: rgba(77, 128, 180, 0.230469); "><br></span></div><div style="text-align: left;direction: ltr; "><span class="Apple-style-span" style="-webkit-tap-highlight-color: rgba(26, 26, 26, 0.296875); -webkit-composition-fill-color: rgba(175, 192, 227, 0.230469); -webkit-composition-frame-color: rgba(77, 128, 180, 0.230469); ">I have to admit that the book taught me something useful. It opened a window on the outlook and historical perspective of some Muslim groups. It also confirms the doubts the Muslim Turkish &nbsp;conservative perceive the Ottoman historically: we, the Arabs, the banner holder of prophetic tradition, will clean your history and teach you the true Islam, again, and, along the way, destroy couple of shrines and historical sites.&nbsp;</span></div><div><br></div><div>Please allow me to offer a more mature reference on the events we are discussing written by a contemporary scholar of the era Shakib Arslan:</div><div><br></div><a href="http://www.4shared.com/file/120309739/2d9973e8/______.html">http://www.4shared.com/file/120309739/2d9973e8/______.html</a><div><br></div&gt;

    <div class="page" title="Page 1">

    <img src="cid:/page1image128" alt="page1image128" width="466.500000" height="661.500000">

    </div><div><br></div><div>In addition, books written by Ilbert Ortayli (head of topkapi museum, fluent in four languages, expert in ottoman archives, PHD was in tanzimat) and translated in Arabic are a joy to read.</div><br>Regards,<div>Walid.</div></div><div><br></div></body></html>

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s